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130 Congressman sign letter to Treasury and Commerce Departments asking them to address Chinse currency manipulations
Howard Richman, 3/16/2010

[The March 15 letter was circulated by Democratic Congressman Mike Michaud (ME) and Tim Ryan (OH) and was signed by 90 Democrats and 40 Republicans. Here is the text.]

Dear Secretary Geithner and Secretary Locke:
We write to express our serious concerns about China’s continued manipulation of its currency. By pegging the renminbi (RMB) to the U.S. dollar at a fixed exchange rate, China unfairly subsidizes its exports and disadvantages foreign imports.  As we work to promote a robust U.S. economic recovery, it is imperative that we address this paramount trade issue with all available resources.  We urge your agencies to respond to China’s currency manipulation with the actions outlined in this letter.  Doing so will allow American companies and workers to compete fairly against their Chinese counterparts and will boost U.S. economic recovery and growth.
The impact of China’s currency manipulation on the U.S. economy cannot be overstated.  Maintaining its currency at a devalued exchange rate provides a subsidy to Chinese companies and unfairly disadvantages foreign competitors.  U.S. exports to the country cannot compete with the low-priced Chinese equivalents, and domestic American producers are similarly disadvantaged in the face of subsidized Chinese imports.  The devaluation of the RMB also exacerbates the already severe U.S-China trade deficit.  Statistics show that between January 2000 and May 2009,China’s share of the U.S. trade deficit for non-oil goods grew from 26% to 83% -- an untenable pattern for American manufacturers.  And finally,China’s exchange-rate misalignment threatens the stability of the global financial system by contributing to rampant Chinese inflation and accumulation of foreign reserves.  For these compelling reasons, we ask your agencies to pursue the course of action below.
First, we urge the Department of Commerce to apply the U.S. countervailing duty law in defense of American companies who have suffered as a result of the currency manipulation.   The U.S. is permitted to respond to subsidized imports where the elements of a subsidy are met under the countervailing duty law.  The countervailing duty law outlines a three-part test to identify the presence of a countervailable subsidy:  1) that it involves a financial contribution from the government; 2) that it confers a benefit; and 3) that is specific to an industry or a group of industries. China’s exchange rate misalignment meets all three parts of this test and therefore merits the WTO-permitted application of countervailing duties.
Second, we ask the Department of Treasury to include China in its bi-annual agency report on currency manipulation.  Since 1994 Treasury has not identified China as a country that manipulates its currency under the terms of the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988 (“Trade Act of 1988”), but Secretary’s Geithner testimony to the Senate acknowledging that fact surely justifies the inclusion of China in the report.  After labeling the country as a currency manipulator, Treasury should enter into negotiations with China regarding its foreign exchange regime.  These combined actions will signal the government’s willingness to take decisive action against China’s currency manipulation, including the potential filing of a formal complaint with the World Trade Organization.
The recommendations identified above must be done in concert with intense diplomatic efforts, not only with China but also with the IMF and multi-laterally with other countries.  Through a combined strategy of legal action and international pressure, it is possible China will revisit its undervaluation of the RMB.  If these efforts are not successful, we ask the Administration to consider all the tools at its disposal, including the application of a tariff on Chinese imports, to respond to China’s currency manipulation.  The economic impact of the RMB undervaluation on American businesses and workers is too great for the Administration not to pursue a comprehensive effort. 
This economic downturn has underscored the pressing need to promote policies that protect U.S. jobs and U.S. businesses.  Addressing China’s manipulation of its currency must be a critical part of our strategy to rebuild our economy and establish safeguards against future financial crises.  The Administration has the legal ability and resources to protect American businesses in the face of China’s RMB devaluation, and we urge you to exercise this authority expeditiously.
Thank you for your consideration of this letter.  We look forward to your response.
1.  Aderholt (R-AL)
2.  Altmire (D-PA)
3.  Arcuri (D-NY)
4.  Baca (D-CA)
5.  Baldwin (D-WI)
6.  Barrett (R-SC)
7.  Berry (D-AR)
8.  R. Bishop (R-UT)
9.  S. Bishop (D-GA)
10.  T. Bishop (D-NY)
11.  Boccieri (D-OH)
12.  Bonner (R-AL)
13.  Boswell (D-IA)
14.  Boucher (D-VA)
15.  Braley (D-IA) 
16.  H. Brown (R-SC)
17.  D. Burton (R-IN)
18.  Butterfield (D-NC)
19.  Buyer (R-IN)
20.  Carney (D-PA)
21.  Childers (D-MS)
22.  Coble (R-NC)
23.  Conyers (D-MI) 
24.  Costello (D-IL)
25.  Dahlkemper (D-PA)
26.  L. Davis (D-TN)
27.  DeFazio (D-OR)
28.  DeLauro (D-CT)
29.  Dingell (D-MI)
30.  Doggett (D-TX)
31.  Donnelly (D-IN)
32.  Doyle (D-PA)
33.  Ehlers (R-MI)
34.  Ellison (D-MN)
35.  Filner (D-CA)
36.  Foster (D-IL)
37.  Gerlach (R-PA)
38.  G. Green (D-TX)
39.  Grijalva (D-AZ)
40.  Halvorson (D-IL)
41.  Hare (D-IL)
42.  Heinrich (D-NM)
43.  Herseth Sandlin (D-SD)
44.  Higgins (D-NY)
45.  Hinchey (D-NY)
46.  Hodes (D-NH)
47.  Hoekstra (R-MI)
48.  Holden (D-PA)
49.  Holt (D-NJ)
50.  D. Hunter (R-CA)
51.  Inglis (R-SC)
52.  J. Jackson (D-IL)
53.  E.B. Johnson (D-TX)
54.  H. Johnson (D-GA)
55.  T. Johnson (R-IL) 
56.  W. Jones (R-NC)
57.  Kagen (D-WI)
58.  Kanjorski (D-PA)
59.  Kaptur (D-OH)
60.  Kildee (D-MI)
61.  Kilroy (D-OH)
62.  Kissell (D-NC)
63.  Kucinich (D-OH)  
64.  LaTourette (R-OH)
65.  B. Lee (D-CA) 
66.  C. Lee (R-NY)
67.  Lipinski (D-IL)
68.  Loebsack (D-IA)
69.  Lynch (D-MA)
70.  Mack (R-FL)
71.  Maffei (D-NY)
72.  Manzullo (R-IL)
73.  McCotter (R-MI)
74.  McGovern (D-MA)
75.  McHenry (R-NC)
76.  McIntyre (D-NC)
77.  Michaud (D-ME)
78.  B. Miller (D-NC)
79.  C. Miller (R-MI) 
80.  Mollohan (D-WV)
81.  C. Murphy (D-CT)
82.  P. Murphy (D-PA)
83.  T. Murphy (R-PA)
84.  Myrick (R-NC)
85.  Napolitano (D-CA)
86.  Olver (D-MA)
87.  Pascrell (D-NJ) 
88.  Perriello (D-VA)
89.  Peters (D-MI)
90.  Petri (R-WI)
91.  Pingree (D-ME)
92.  Pitts (R-PA)
93.  Platts (R-PA)
94.  Rahall (D-WV)
95.  Richardson (D-CA)
96.  H. Rogers (R-KY)
97.  M.D. Rogers (R-AL)
98.  M.J. Rogers (R-MI)
99.  Rohrabacher (R-CA)
100.  Rush (D-IL)
101.  T. Ryan (D-OH)
102.  Linda Sanchez (D-CA)
103.  Schakowsky (D-IL)
104.  Schauer (D-MI)
105.  Sensenbrenner (R-WI)
106.  Shea-Porter (D-NH)
107.  Sherman (D-CA)
108.  Shimkus (R-IL)
109.  Shuler (D-NC)
110.  Shuster (R-PA)
111.  Slaughter (D-NY)
112.  Souder (R-IN)
113.  Space (D-OH) 
114.  Spratt (D-SC)
115.  Stark (D-CA)   
116.  Stupak (D-MI)
117.  Sutton (D-OH)
118.  Taylor (D-MS)
119.  B. Thompson (D-MS)
120.  G. Thompson (R-PA) 
121.  Tonko (D-NY)
122.  M. Turner (R-OH)
123.  Upton (R-MI)
124.  Visclosky (D-IN)
125.  Walz (D-MN)
126.  Welch (D-VT)  
127.  Westmoreland (R-GA)
128.  C. Wilson (D-OH)
129.  J. Wilson (R-SC)
130.  Woolsey (D-CA)

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  • [An] extensive argument for balanced trade, and a program to achieve balanced trade is presented in Trading Away Our Future, by Raymond Richman, Howard Richman and Jesse Richman. “A minimum standard for ensuring that trade does benefit all is that trade should be relatively in balance.” [Balanced Trade entry]

    Journal of Economic Literature:

  • [Trading Away Our Future] Examines the costs and benefits of U.S. trade and tax policies. Discusses why trade deficits matter; root of the trade deficit; the “ostrich” and “eagles” attitudes; how to balance trade; taxation of capital gains; the real estate tax; the corporate income tax; solving the low savings problem; how to protect one’s assets; and a program for a strong America....

    Atlantic Economic Journal:

  • In Trading Away Our Future   Richman ... advocates the immediate adoption of a set of public policy proposal designed to reduce the trade deficit and increase domestic savings.... the set of public policy proposals is a wake-up call... [February 17, 2009 review by T.H. Cate]